It appears that many of the messages that they brought in their day are still relevant to this day.  Nonetheless, it shares the perspective of the other prophets that God is active in the world (Jonah 1:2, 17; 2:10), and that faithfulness to God (or lack of it) underlies a three-fold link among worship, socio-economic health and the environment. He provides Jonah shade and shelter at Nineveh (Jon. 3. Moreover, the Christian community can be a powerful force for economic, civic and social well-being if it can learn to bring the spiritual and ethical power of God’s word to bear on matters of work in the economic, social, governmental, academic, medical, scientific and other matters of work. Though the savings run out, And the pension is not enough to live on; Shortly afterwards, an ill-advised rebellion brought down the wrath of the Babylonians in 587 BC, leading to the collapse of the state of Judah and the deportation of the elites to the center of the Babylonian empire (2 Kings 24-25). Despite God’s intentions, work is subjected to human sin. Hab. . The Twelve Prophets carry a fundamental optimism that God is active in the world to change it for the better. If we are ambitious for power and influence because we think without our wisdom, skill and leadership, or work group, company, organization, or nation is doomed, then our ambition is a form of idolatry. If the people of Israel would recognize the cosmic significance of their actions and efforts, not only would they receive rains of blessing, but they would also affect change the world over. He judges the results of his own work harshly (Jon. Everyone is called to work in cooperation with God and the community of faith towards the peace and wellbeing that God longs for in his creation. The first of the Trei Asar, the book of Hoshea son of Be’eri, is one of the longest of the twelve, comprising fourteen chapters. You are free to share (to copy, distribute and transmit the work), and remix (to adapt the work) for non-commercial use only, under the condition that you must attribute the work to the Theology of Work Project, Inc., but not in any way that suggests that it endorses you or your use of the work. Therefore they shall now be the first to go into exile, and the revelry of the loungers shall pass away. 4:1-2). In chapter 2, Malachi addresses the priests and places upon them a new charge – beyond their ritual responsibilities in the Beit Hamikdash, they are to become teachers of the Law to the people. . 1:14-19). Are contemporary political, economic, and natural disasters punishments from God? “The vine withers, the fig tree droops. Amos 5:21-24 I hate, I despise your festivals, and I take no delight in your solemn assemblies. Douglas Stuart, vol. Were the modern-day declarers of God’s punishment forged as prophets by years of suffering alongside those afflicted, as Jeremiah, the Twelve and the other prophets of ancient Israel? 2:18, NASB, cf. “See, I am sending my messenger to prepare the way before me, and the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple. God’s word to his people in times of economic and social hardship is that God’s intent is to restore peace, justice, and prosperity, if the people will live by the precepts of his covenant. In the third chapter, the outpouring of rain becomes a metaphor for an outpouring of God’s spirit among the people, as the “day of Hashem,” judgment day, approaches. The book can be divided into two sections of two chapters each. 2 Samuel 12:30 Or from Milkom’s (that is, Molek’s) 2 Samuel 12:30 That is, about 75 pounds or about 34 kilograms; 2 Samuel 12:31 The meaning of the Hebrew for this clause is uncertain. The final chapter is one of the most sublime calls for repentance in the Bible, and is traditionally read in synagogues on the Sabbath which occurs during the Days of Repentance, between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur. Joel had observed the beginnings of this degradation long before the exile, in fact. 2:10). Summary of 1 & 2 Kings. Mal. Hosea and Amos expand this point. Instead of the pure worship of God, Menashe brought Assyrian idols and cultic practices into Yehuda, and even into the Beit Hamikdash itself. ), Jesus ben Sira spoke of “the twelve prophets” (Ecclesiasticus 9:10) as a unit parallel to Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Hab. He grants Jonah favour among the enemy population of Nineveh, who treat him with esteem and heed his message. The first time, Yona refuses to deliver the message and attempts to flee, only to be stopped by Hashem. It does not contain prophetic oracles, and the focus is not on the people to whom the prophet is sent, but on his own personal experience. Nonetheless, this is God’s will. The text gives no indication of its date. This sense permeated their lives, and the commandments were performed by rote, if at all. Do we do the same? 1:11). Today we may not be literally crafting idols of precious materials before which we bow down. Several of Zecharya‘s prophecies are dated to the second and fourth years of the reign of Darius (520 and 518 BCE), at the time when the construction of the second Temple had begun in earnest under the Persian-appointed governor Zerubbabel. The people are adjusting to life in the resettled land of Israel, and to a world without prophecy. This culminated in the destruction of Judah’s societal infrastructure and the deportation of its leadership into exile in the Babylonian empire (2 Kings 24-25). Yet God accomplishes the fullness of his mission through Jonah’s halting, flawed, intermittent service. “On that day, says the Lord of hosts, you shall invite each other to come under your vine and fig tree” (Zech. 2:7–8). Hos. . (Hab. With respect to the Twelve, let us give a brief outline. But Micah is speaking to Israel as a whole, not only to individuals. When the prophet complains, God demonstrates to him that His mercy extends to all the world’s inhabitants and creatures. He saw that evil remained unpunished and unbowed, and challenged Heaven for a response. The Twelve / Minor Prophets. Elisha, a prophet, while plowing 12 oxen is called into his prophetic ministry by Elijah (1 Kings 19:19). 2:15-16 “Alas for you who make your neighbors drink, pouring out your wrath until they are drunk, in order to gaze on their nakedness!” You will be sated with contempt instead of glory. They covet fields, and seize them; houses, and take them away; they oppress householder and house, people and their inheritance. As such, this book must be understood as a transition. 4:1-5 In days to come the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised up above the hills. Amos 6:7 Therefore they shall now be the first to go into exile, and the revelry of the loungers shall pass away. Hag. The era of the Trei Asar ranges from the middle of the eighth century BCE to the beginning of the fourth century BCE. Wouldn’t it be easier to hope God doesn’t call us at all? But when people and societies work in faithfulness to God, he blesses them with an integrated spiritual-ethical-environmental health and prosperity. There are true prophets of God and false prophets, but here are the top 12 Bible verses about the true prophets of God from Scripture. Theology of Work Project. However, Yoel’s message is clear: Through repentance, disaster can be averted and judgment can be transformed to mercy. Ultimately, the land is restored and the people of Israel will dwell securely on it. The book contains three main sections. Amos complains that this provision is being violated. But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. The book contains five sections in its three chapters. They are first in dissolution, he observes, as they, “lounge on their couches” (Amos 6:4) and “sing idle songs to the sound of the harp” (Amos 6:5). It’s in the Bible, Matthew 5:11-12, NKJV. 12. The book of the vision of Nahum of Elkosh. Welcome to our site! However, by the time Yoshiyahu comes to power, Assyrian influence is on the wane. Hos. Pomegranate, palm, and apple—all the trees of the field are dried up; surely, joy withers away among the people” (Joel 1:12). What was the correct way of tithing from the Jewish perspective. A straightforward application of this would be to rule out prostitution as a legitimate occupation, even it if might be an understandable choice for those who have no other way to provide for themselves or their families. The means to travel, friends ready to risk their lives for him, harmony with the world of nature, shade and shelter, the esteem of people among whom he works, and astounding success in his work—imagine how great a blessing these might have been if Jonah had accepted them as God intended. Hag. Before the exile, the prophets challenge the elites of Israel about their use of power and their faithfulness in worship. link to Summary of 1 & 2 Kings. The unique contributions of the book of Jonah are 1) the focus on the prophet’s call and response; and 2) the recognition that God is not working to bless Israel against the other nations, but to bless the other nations through Israel.. What this small book does, however, is concentrate upon the upcoming downfall of the Assyrian empire, which had brutally dominated the Middle East for over five centuries. The prophets criticize those whose wealth leads them to abandon working for the common good and who give up any sense of responsibility for their neighbours. The first chapter describes God’s judgment – those who trust in God will find shelter while the rest of the world trembles. Mal. Those Jews who returned to their ancestral land did so filled with idealism and hope, but soon the harsh reality of rebuilding their destroyed homes and repairing their scorched fields overtook them. 1:1-12 An oracle concerning Nineveh. Contributors: Tim Meadowcroft, William Messenger Image by 1:2-4 Thus says the Lord of hosts: These people say the time has not yet come to rebuild the Lord’s house. 4:7-10 The more they increased, the more they sinned against me; they changed their glory into shame. Accordingly, his prophecies often draw their metaphors from nature. The prophets lay the blame squarely on the people of Israel, and to a lesser extent Judah, for abandoning the worship of Yahweh in favour of idolatry, and for violating the ethical requirements of the Law. If our response to success is self-congratulation, we are practicing idolatry. Micah proclaims God’s judgment against unjust commerce. As a result differences of opinion exist concerning the time of their ministries. Amos accuses them of waiting restlessly for the end of Sabbath so they can carry on selling this cheap, adulterated food product to those who have no other choice (Amos 8:5). The 12 books of the "minor" prophets are no less important than those of the "major" prophets but "major" a reflection of the length of the books and the considerable number of the prophecies in them. If our work is a form of service under God, we cannot ignore such questions. Unfortunately, Judah did not repent of her idolatry and ethical violations after her close escape from the Assyrians. . Hag. Hear the word of the Lord, O people of Israel; for the Lord has an indictment against the inhabitants of the land. Through this marriage and the naming of his children, Hoshea creates one of the most powerful metaphors for the relationship between Hashem and Israel. Take away from me the noise of your songs; I will not listen to the melody of your harps. It is not a sacrifice of 10% of the harvest, but a blessing of 100% of the amazing yield of God’s creation. These final twelve books of the Old Testament are usually referred to in the English-speaking Christian tradition as the Minor Prophets. 1:17 Thus says the Lord of hosts: My cities shall again overflow with prosperity. Until then, “the righteous man is rewarded with life for his fidelity” (2:4). After the exile ended, Jewish civil society and religious life were restored in the land of God’s promise. We need to be careful not to imagine a hierarchy of work, however. This plague of locusts is metaphorically compared to an invading army from the north. This short book contains three sections; a two-part dialogue with Hashem, a series of taunts towards Israel’s former oppressors, and a final request of God to overthrow all evil and injustice in the world. I will not listen to the melody of your harps. By means of a play on words more obvious in Hebrew than in the English translation, Haggai links the desolation of the temple (“in ruins,” Hebrew hareb, Hag. 2:6-7 “Alas for you who heap up what is not your own!” How long will you load yourselves with goods taken in pledge? Given the importance of work and work practices to the wellbeing of the environment, if Christians were to do their work according to the vision of the Twelve Prophets, we could have a profoundly beneficial impact on the planet and all those who inhabit it. Rather, it has to do primarily with the length of the books. Surprisingly similar complaints can be heard today against those who have wealth, but do not employ it towards any good purpose. All this took place, it seems, at the pleasure of the Persian empire. However, the shadow of Assyrian domination and conquest, which had been long dormant, was beginning to raise its terrible head. It proceeds with the restoration of the environment. THANK FOR THE INTERESTING SUMMARY OF THE TWELVE PROPHERTS. Swearing, lying, and murder, and stealing and adultery break out; bloodshed follows bloodshed. What is commonly known as the "minor prophets" is a collection of writings in the Old Testament from twelve different men inspired by God. Aside from his father’s name, we know nothing of the prophet’s personal life, and the absence of historical references in the book make pinpointing when he lived near impossible. That superpower, which brutally enslaved the Middle East for centuries, was about to collapse. His essays and articles on Bible study appear regularly in leading magazines. Ive also been unearthing alot of new almost mystic information as well as revelations! That is why I fled to Tarshish at the beginning; for I knew that you are a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, and ready to relent from punishing. Chaney, ‘Bitter Bounty: The Dynamics of Political Economy Critiqued by the Eighth-Century Prophets,’ in The Bible and Liberation: Political and Social Hermeneutics (rev. This is part of the more general link between worship and the health of the environment. Undoubtedly we can all bring to mind people whose prodigious abilities enabled them to do great harm in fields of business, government, society, science, religion, and all the rest. The loathing for Edom became engraved in the Jewish mind, and in rabbinic thought, all of Israel’s enemies are considered to be Edom’s spiritual descendants. 2:18-19 Since the day that the foundation of the Lord’s temple was laid, consider: Is there any seed left in the barn? 3:5a) and “when God saw what they did, how they turned from their evil ways, God changed his mind about the calamity that he had said he would bring upon them; and he did not do it” (Jon. From this day on I will bless you. 2:3 Seek the Lord, all you humble of the land, who do his commands; seek righteousness, seek humility; perhaps you may be hidden on the day of the Lord’s wrath. Furthermore, the focus of the book is on Yehuda and Yerushalayim, and not on Achav‘s northern kingdom. To dramatize the situation, God takes the metaphor literally and commands the prophet Hosea to “take for yourself a wife of whoredom and have children of whoredom, for the land commits great whoredom by forsaking the Lord” (Hosea 1:2). Mic. 7:14). For the essence of idolatry is that “its maker trusts in his own handiwork” (Hab. Tzefanya speaks about how the people of God must live in righteousness, which involves respecting the needs of the poor and engaging in genuine worship. The fourth book of the Trei Asar, Sefer Ovadya, is the shortest book in the Tanakh. 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